Recently, the Swiss authorities took this step in a controversial diplomatic case. In mid-June, the Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland issued a national warrant for two Turkish diplomats for allegedly kidnapping a Swiss businessman in Turkey. The alleged kidnapping was attempted a month after the coup. The Turkish foreign minister denied the allegations. The Swiss authorities said they would arrest the Turkish nationals if they entered Switzerland.
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All rights reserved. The content of the website by swissinfo. It is intended for private use only. Any other use of the website content beyond the use stipulated above, particularly the distribution, modification, transmission, storage and copying requires prior written consent of swissinfo. Woodhull used the codes 10 New York , 30 and 40 Post Riders , and 20 Setauket in his first letter of correspondence.
Tallmadge realized the significance of creating a code book to increase their vocabulary. By July , he had completed pocket dictionaries with lists of verbs, nouns, people, and places with their corresponding code number. These dictionaries were given to General Washington, Woodhull, Townsend, and Tallmadge himself, to ensure that it did not get into enemy hands. The code book was a way that Washington made sure that the Culper Ring spies had more support and operated in greater secrecy than previous Continental spies, perhaps with Nathan Hale in mind.
Tallmadge, Woodhull, and Townsend were given code names and code numbers, along with Washington, Brewster, Roe, and Rivington.
George Washington's code number was He had taken in Alexander Hamilton when Hamilton arrived in New York as an orphan in to attend King's College, and he had helped Hamilton obtain a commission in the army. Mulligan began his activities in late or early , well before formation of the Culper Ring.
Mulligan's slave Cato was his "faithful accomplice" in his intelligence activities.
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Townsend ceased his activities for a time for fear that he, also, would be discovered. The members of the ring gathered information from a variety of sources, including persons other than unwitting British officers.
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Some of those informants or associates included Joseph Lawrence, a Long Island resident; Captain Nathan Woodhull, Woodhull's uncle who served as a Loyalist militia officer but provided information to Abraham Woodhull; Nathaniel Ruggles, a schoolmaster and physician born in ; Joshua Davis, a Brewster deputy and occasional substitute; George Smith, a whaleboat man who filled in for Brewster near the end of the war; and William T.
Robinson, a merchant. Alexander Rose writes that John Cork was a code name for an unidentified informant. A letter by loyalist soldier Nehemia Marks was uncovered in which identifies brothers Nathaniel and Phillip Roe as supporters of the spy ring, with Nathaniel providing intelligence and Phillip material aid. The letter also provides evidence that the Culper ring operated in Drowned Meadow beyond Setauket and Oyster Bay, as previously believed. The letter is housed in the William L. Clements library at the University of Michigan, where it was discovered by a former resident of Port Jefferson researching the Culper Ring.
Some sources note a female member of the ring known only as Agent , while others believe that this code number referred to Anna Strong or was simply a misunderstanding of a cryptic reference in one of Abraham Woodhull's letters. The general public was unaware of the Ring's existence until the s.
danardono.com.or.id/libraries/2020-05-17/wepa-how-can.php Robert Townsend's identity as "Culper, Jr. Historian Morton Pennypacker reviewed the letters and noticed that the handwriting in letters from the trunk, written by Robert Townsend, was similar to handwriting in letters written by "Samuel Culper, Jr. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the historical spy ring and the spymasters. Memoir of Col. Benjamin Tallmadge. New York: Thomas Holman, Retrieved April 25, New York: Penguin Group, Avon, MA: Adams Media, Culper Ring in Hastedt, Glenn, P.
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Beauregard and other contacts. She sent her year-old courier, Bettie Duvall, through 20 miles of Union territory with a coded message for Beauregard tucked into her hair. She and her youngest daughter, Little Rose, were placed under house arrest and later sent to prison. Despite her confinement, Greenhow still managed to transmit cryptic notes to Confederate leaders. After her release in , Davis sent her on a diplomatic mission to Europe, where she met with Napoleon III and Queen Victoria, became engaged to a British nobleman and published her memoirs.
Trying to escape in a rowboat, she drowned in choppy water, weighed down by gold intended for the Confederate treasury. One of the most celebrated heroines in American history, Harriet Tubman is perhaps best known for ushering slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad in the s. But not everyone knows that the courageous Tubman, who escaped slavery in , set up a vast espionage ring for the Union during the Civil War.
In early , with the support of abolitionist friends in the North, Tubman traveled to South Carolina, where she served as a nurse and teacher for the hundreds of newly liberated slaves who had assembled in Union camps. She soon recruited groups of black men who slipped behind Confederate lines, posing as servants or slaves in order to gather military intelligence. She also organized dangerous missions in which Union troops destroyed plantations and spirited former slaves away on warships.
In June , Tubman herself led an armed expedition along the Combahee River, disrupting Confederate supply lines and liberating more than slaves.