Download e-book Military communications: from ancient times to the 21st century

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Military communications: from ancient times to the 21st century file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Military communications: from ancient times to the 21st century book. Happy reading Military communications: from ancient times to the 21st century Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Military communications: from ancient times to the 21st century at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Military communications: from ancient times to the 21st century Pocket Guide.
The Art of War
  1. Cookies on FT Sites
  2. Combat effectiveness - Wikipedia
  3. Military Medicine: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century
  4. A Sailor’s Take on Multi-Domain Operations
  5. Military Communications: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century

What is known is that ancient civilisations used them to declare their territory and warn others of danger. Smoke signals are also synonymous with Native Americans who communicated more complicated messages. This is one of the reasons why they were popular with the military throughout this period of history. Using Carrier Pigeons is another of the oldest methods of getting a message from one point to another. The Romans were amongst the early adopters, using them to keep their military informed.

The method works as pigeons have natural homing capabilities which can be enhanced with training.

The idea of training the birds is widely attributed to the Persians. The first recorded machine to put letters onto paper was in , but the first time the typewriter was considered a commercial success was when Sholes and Glidden released theirs in The longest time elapsed between a letter being posted and its delivery is 89 years. The written word was no doubt delivered a long time before this, but the modern postal service as we know it came about around the s, though the first recorded UK post office was roughly years earlier.

Although mechanical semaphores were developed earlier, flag semaphores came into being around The sender uses two flags to communicate messages over long distances. The position of the flags while in rest position corresponds to a letter or number, allowing the recipient to spell out the message from their end.

Cookies on FT Sites

In June Andrei Bindasov Belarus successfully transmitted Morse code marks of mixed text in one minute. People around the world are familiar with the dots and dashes of Morse code. The code was developed in the s to allow quick and easy communication via electrical telegraph systems. The sender sends individual letters and numbers, and the recipient assembles the message. You may be surprised to know that fax actually predates telephones. Alexander Bain was able to produce signs in laboratories in and the first faxed message was achieved in , some 11 years before telephones.

The modern fax as we know it now was patented by Xerox in but has seen its popularity diminish as more recent technology superseded it.

Combat effectiveness - Wikipedia

The most books typed backwards on four blank keyboards and without looking at the screen is 73 3,, words, 21,, characters, 28, pages, , paragraphs and , lines and was achieved by Michele Santelia Italy , in Campobasso, Italy, on 12th April The dots and dashes of Morse code can also be transmitted by lights.

The Navy pioneered this type of signalling in with their own code, although later they adopted Morse code for ease of use. Shutters on the lights are open and closed to send the relevant messages. Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone in , though contributions from the likes of Antonio Meucci have also been noted. Technically, the first air mail was by hot air balloon in between Dover and Calais, but the first recorded aeroplane delivery occurred in The transmission of audio and sound through electromagnetic waves.

The first audio broadcast took place in with Morse code; the first voice transmission took place in Nowadays radio communication, like television, is digital and online. Television developed over a long period of time, with mechanical televisions prevalent in the late s, but television came more into the public eye in the s through the work of John Logie Baird in the UK and Philo Farnsworth in the US. Pagers were probably at their peak in the 80s and 90s but the modern pager can be tracked back to and John Francis Marshall who took the concept of walkie-talkie communication a stage further and created the pager.

Much like the fax machine, pagers have seen their popularity rapidly decrease with the due to the popularity of mobile phones since the s.

Military Medicine: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century

It was a 30m 98 ft diameter balloon with a reflective aluminium coating, allowing radio and television signals to be passively reflected back to Earth. The 'press' acquires a new and significant meaning. If the 16th century is the first age of the pamphlet, the 17th fills the same role in relation to the newspaper.

The turmoil in Europe in the first half of the century, particularly during the violent and complex Thirty Years' War , makes people eager for information about the latest events. The printers and newsgatherers move rapidly to satisfy this need. The Germans, as with earlier stages in the development of printing , are first in the field. Both Augsburg and Strasbourg have news sheets during Occasional sheets are known in several European cities during the late 16th century, but these two Germany papers seem to be the first published on a regular basis.

During the next two decades newspapers are published in Basel, Vienna, Amsterdam, Antwerp and London - where the title of the earliest news sheet in Corante, or, Newes from Italy, Germany, Hungarie, Spaine and France suggests the strongly European flavour of this thirst for information. France follows in , when the Gazette de France is established with official encouragement from Cardinal Richelieu.

Early development

Newspapers are soon known in Denmark , Florence , Sweden and Poland All governments depend on communication, and throughout history there have been repeated attempts to increase the speed and reliability of the mail. For rulers who know their Herodotus, there is always the performance of the Persian couriers as a challenging yardstick. The Mongols in the 13th century achieve a speed of communication similar to that of the ancient Persians. Soon after this the princes of Moscow are said to have learnt from their Mongol neighbours how to establish an efficient postal system.

Louis XI sets up a royal post in France in , with the necessary relays of horses in permanent readiness. But it is in the s that a sense of urgency seems to develop. Witherings does so by placing boatmen under contract to make regular crossings with the mail between Dover and Calais. Two years later Charles decides to make the inland mail a royal monopoly, and again selects Witherings for the task.

Top 10 Inventions of All Time

Witherings establishes on a permanent basis the ancient system familiar everywhere as a temporary measure in any military campaign of official 'posts' whose job is to keep fresh horses and couriers in readiness at all times at their particular 'post stage'. During the 17th century the posts begin to be referred to more often as post masters. Witherings adds a new element by placing the system on a commercial basis, enabling private mail to be carried on a published scale of payment.

The payment relates to a single sheet of paper causing the English to learn to write very small , and it varies according to the distance travelled - with extra charges if the item is carried on by branch posts from any of the main towns on the post road. This postage system remains in place until the great reform by Rowland Hill in Witherings' speed of miles a day is not up to the standard of ancient Persia Britain being less easy for galloping across , but a letter can now be sent and an answer received between London and Edinburgh within a week.

Sweden follows this example, establishing a royal mail in Three years later, the first organized postal system in the American colonies gives an intimate view of how personal any postal system is at this early stage - with the post master very directly responsible for the efficiency of his own area. In the authorities in Massachusetts legislate for the distribution of mail in the colony as yet only ten years old. All mail arriving from overseas is to be delivered to the house of Richard Fairbanks in Boston. Fairbanks has the responsibility for getting each letter to its destination, and is allowed to charge one penny for his pains.

Optical signals: 17th - 18th century. The invention of the telescope in the 17th century makes possible a wide range of optical signalling systems. The earliest to be developed is that of flags at sea. Pioneered in England in , the complexity of the messages which can be sent becomes steadily greater over the years. By the admiral of the fleet, Lord Howe, has at his disposal a total of twenty-eight flags to be used in conjunction with a printed code issued to all his officers. In different combinations, used either as whole words or single letters, the flags can form any sentence.

This system is finalized during the Napoleonic wars as the Signal Book for the Ships of War , issued by the Admiralty in This is the code used by Nelson at Trafalgar in , to fly from his masts the message 'England expects that every man will do his duty'. His signals lieutenant later reveals that the admiral told him to transmit 'England confides..

Meanwhile the same war has stimulated both sides to evolve a similar technique for sending messages on land. The French take the initiative. In Claude Chappe develops the idea of a line of hilltop towers, each bearing a structure with two hinged arms. The pair of arms can be moved to any of 49 recognizably different positions, seven for each arm.

A Sailor’s Take on Multi-Domain Operations

Every tower has two telescopes, fixed and focussed on its neighbour in either direction - between three and six miles away. Messages, made up of a few frequently used words and others spelt out from the alphabet, can be rapidly passed from tower to tower. Chappe coins two words for his invention which become widely adopted - telegraph from Greek for 'far write' and semaphore Greek for 'sign bearer'.

Chappe's semaphore is used in France, where several lines of towers are built. It is also taken up in many other countries, and is adapted to a human version over shorter distances - with a signaller's two arms, extended by flags, taking up the coded positions instead of the mechanical equivalent in the tower. In England a similar device is developed a year or two later by an aristocratic clergyman, the Reverend Lord George Murray.

On his towers he places a structure with six sections, each of which can be either open to the sky or closed with a black panel.

Military Communications: From Ancient Times to the 21st Century

The six black-white options give 64 elements in Murray's vocabulary, in place of 49 in Chappe's. By one line of towers runs from Deal on the coast of Kent to London, and another from Lille to Paris. Messages about the enemy flash in each direction. Both sides claim that transmission with trained signallers over these distances takes only two minutes. Whatever the precise times, these methods certainly outdo all previous options - being faster than a runner, a galloping horse or even a pigeon. After the war Britain adopts the French system. Semaphore holds sway until the arrival of the next and once again infinitely superior method of sending messages - an early version of which is demonstrated by Charles Wheatstone in Benefits in both communication and travel derive from an initiative of John Palmer in As owner of a theatre in Bath, he is struck by the fact that letters to and from London often take three days on the journey - because the royal mail employs for the purpose individual postboys on decrepit horses.

Palmer proposes to the government a more ambitious scheme, by which the mail is to be carried in special coaches with good horses, armed guards, and no outside passengers.

There is strong opposition from the post office, but the young William Pitt gives Palmer his personal support. As chancellor of the exchequer, he is attracted by the idea of higher postal charges for a better service. The first mail coach runs from Bristol to London in It is so successful that by the autumn of the following year Palmer has launched services to sixteen other towns including Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Norwich, Dover, Portsmouth, Hereford, Swansea and Holyhead.

Edinburgh is added in By there are forty-two routes in operation. The departure of the mail coaches becomes a famous event every evening in London, for they all leave together at 8 p.