The exam of mathematics and the first foreign language can be sat at a higher or lower level. The mark achieved in optional subjects includes to a certain degree i. For example in chemistry the final mark comprises the mark students got during the year with their experimental work. Quite possibly there will be more subjects that could be taken at different levels in the future.
Like in Ireland, in Slovenia too, the National curricular council constantly monitors, assesses and updates the secondary school curricula. The objective of the Irish school seems to be permanent quality improvement at all levels in order to make it possible for children, students and students to develop all their capabilities.
Ireland has phased in some reforms based on the partnership model. Such partnership has not yet been systemically developed in Slovenia.
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It seems as if the Irish are always in the middle of reforms since consultations are ongoing at all levels. By comparing the Slovenian and Irish upper secondary schools we realise that the Slovenian inspection commissions do not assess the quality of the educational work of the high schools by marking them as un satisfactory, good, very good and excellent the way it seems to be done in Ireland assumption based on some reports of the Irish secondary schools. The internal evaluation of the Slovenian school is indeed quite internal in nature and is not widely publicised. Furthermore, we can conclude that from the objectives point of view the Irish upper secondary schools are more integrative and transformational than the Slovenian ones.
The Slovenian vocational schools, on the other hand, are like in Ireland focused on the employability of the students with baccalaureate.
It has a different name. Moreover it is privatised to a bigger degree and has many different managers. Students graduate when they are 18 and not 19 as in Slovenia. Students enter the first year of the lower secondary school when they are 11 and the upper secondary school when they are 15 or There is also the characteristic transition year unheard of in Slovenia. Above all the Irish schools enjoy a greater degree of autonomy and liberty when it comes to making their school programmes and syllabi.
Consequently they are also to a higher degree accountable to parents and to other institutions. For that reason we expect in future a higher degree of internal and external differentiation and of autonomy of Slovenian schools. The Irish school system is standardised and flexible.
Table 2: Correlations between the Slovenian high school and Irish upper secondary school. Slovenian high schools Irish upper secondary schools all types of high schools have 4 year programmes. Interestingly, at the first glance both the Irish and Finish school systems resemble the former Yugoslav vocation-oriented education that was in force in Slovenia from to The Finish subject syllabi 8 are longer than the Slovenian ones from which were telegraphic and shorter than the ones from which take the form of a prognostic study without any analytical and diagnostic value of previous experience.
The accountability of an individual is strongly emphasised in the Finish secondary school. A student has to clearly know what he or she wants to become in life. In Slovenia there are still no right conditions for such a system. Architecturally and functionally, the Finish schools differ from the Slovenian ones.
Modesty is a fundamental characteristic of the Finns. There are no class masters no departmental organisation. All participants have to be familiar with the modules in advance otherwise good choices cannot be made nor can interdisciplinary connections occur. The Finish teachers are well trained to teach according to modules. In Slovenia teachers should have more training in that respect. The Finish secondary school is based on the flexible modular approach. In order to successfully finish the school, a student has to choose 75 modules of which 45 to 49 are obligatory and 10 are special.
Such a secondary school is efficient since it presupposes that students will learn a lot of substance in a short time and in a quality manner, i. The Finish secondary school actively practices interculturalism, entrepreneurship and active citizenship. Since the spring reform the objective of the Finish Matriculation Examination matura in Slovene is to establish the knowledge and skills of students and their level of maturity to access the higher education.
The Finish Matriculation Examination consists of 4 obligatory and 3 elective obligatory subjects. General upper secondary schools give general education to students aged about They continue the basic education teaching task and provide eligibility for further studies at the higher level. Syllabus are planned for three years. It is possible to complete school in two years, maximum four years.
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General upper secondary school is also available for adults. More than half of each age group complete general upper secondary school. The general upper secondary school ends in the matriculation examination which yields eligibility for all higher education studies. Table 3: Comparison between the Slovenian high school and Finish general upper secondary school. Slovenian high schools Finish general upper secondary school Not yet fully developed economy Highly developed economy Late European nation state Late European nation state Standardised subject-based classes Flexible modular classes Largely ex-cathedra teaching with no explicit accountability of students Largely individual classes in which students are responsible for their own success Centralised school with a curriculum prescribed by the state and with no systemic self-evaluation Decentralised school planning its own curriculum and evaluating it Periodical curricular reforms by the National Curriculum Council Schools update their syllabi on their own initiative Dual secondary school system Uniform secondary school with a more or less pronounced vocational orientation Noncompulsory school of the most general education, Youth age 15 - 19 Compulsory general upper secondary school.
Minimum 2 years, maximum 4 years Teachers are not sufficiently trained to take on new didactical methods Well trained teachers Baccalaureate is an entry ticket to higher education and university Matriculation examination is an entry ticket to higher education and university Baccalaureate comprises 5 to 6 subjects of which 3 are obligatory, the other 2 or 3 are elective Matriculation examination comprises 7 subjects of which 4 are obligatory and 3 are obligatory elective subjects 4 Some highlights from the proposal for the high school reform.
The criteria to assess the objectives are cognitive, conative and social. Rutar Ilc , advised teachers of certain subjects and for certain topics how to prepare classes in order to take into account higher taxonomic levels of the mentioned scales. Plausibly, cognitive part of the school objectives is easiest to achieve by traditional methods whereas the conative and social levels of these objectives are much harder to reach since new didactical methods are not yet readily acceptable.
And this is what the didactical reform of high schools aims at.
According to Z. Rutar Ilc , the high school reform targets a higher degree of students' activity, more elective subjects and planning the learning process and objectives. The aim is knowledge of high quality knowledge that is flexible, dynamic, usable and transmissible and to promote independent thinking. The stress is on team work and on quality classes.
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Teaching for understanding the content of subjects is a condition for learning by understanding. It is advisable to use a combination of inductive and deductive as well as abstract and experience-based approach to problem solving. The approach that has achievement of learning objectives at heart connects contents with activities. All reformed high school syllabi present the same structure but some contain more didactical guidance than others, some detail students' activities related to a certain topic more than others, some seem to offer some room for teachers' creativity others seem to determine teachers' classroom work.
Some syllabi include their own historical approach e. It is to be expected that on the basis of unequal syllabi we will get unequal baccalaureate catalogues of knowledge that will have in common only standardised basic criteria.
Syllabi are largely disciplinary in nature only some show some tendencies to interdisciplinary approach. The Scandinavian countries, and in particular Finland plan carefully lifelong learning in the information era for the whole population. Ireland follows suit. Slovenia, however, in its high school syllabi still focuses on how to prepare students for further studies at the next level, i. Overtaxing of students is a complex and a relative notion. Therefore it cannot be the sole motive for a curricular reform. Overtaxing can never be completely removed nor can the effect-oriented school since knowledge develops exponentially.
The reform aims at the elective subjects. The Slovenian high school oscillates between being elitist and mass-driven and between the uniform and dual system. The comparative analysis between the Slovenian high school and some selected schools in Ireland and Finland clearly shows that despite the modernisation of Slovenian high schools some deeply rooted differences remain not only because of the distinct cultural traditions but mainly because high schools themselves keep changing. The Slovenian high schools will be further differentiated in accordance with our own experience and partly taking aboard foreign experience.
General objectives of high schools are similar also between dissimilar high schools. It is more a question of how well teachers are trained to fulfil all educational needs in different environments. High schools are found worldwide. The idea was first instituted in France by Napoleon. In some countries high schools are compulsory whereas this is not the case in Slovenia. For more on that see the article by Novak, B. The Irish Context. In: Stephenson, J. Values in Education.
Organization for Economic. In: Rupnik Vec, T. Book of proceedings.https://ignamant.cl/wp-includes/7/159-como-encontrar.php
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Ljubljana, FF. Gimnazijski program.
Many types of knowledge according to different taxonomies. At least partly focus on interdisciplinary connections. In language and social science classes more emphasis on interactive communication. Introducing the idea of complex professionalism of a teacher. Introducing a new subject "learning to learn" in nine year primary schools. School with development of rational, emotional and spiritual competencies.